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CONTENTS
(and some excerpts)
 
1
Where does Polysorbate 60 Come From, Daddy?  (click here for excerpt)
 
2
Wheat Flour
 
3
Bleach
 
4
Enrichment Blend: Ferrous Sulfate and B Vitamins–Niacin, Thiamine Mononitrate (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Folic Acid
 
5
Sugar
 
6
Corn Sweeteners
 
7
Corn Syrup, Dextrose, Glucose, and High Fructose Corn Syrup
 
8
Corn Thickeners: Cornstarch, Modified Cornstarch, Corn Dextrins, Corn Flour
 
9
Water
 
10
Soy: Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable and/or Animal Shortening, Soy Lecithin, and Soy Protein Isolate
 
11
Eggs
 
12
Cellulose Gum
 
13
Whey
 
14
Leavenings
 
15
Baking Soda
(click here for excerpt)
 
16
Phosphates  (Sodium acid pyrophosphate and monocalcium phosphate)
 
17
Salt
 
18
Mono and Diglycerides
 
19
Polysorbate 60
 
20
Natural and Artificial Flavors
 
21
Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate
 
22
Sodium and Calcium Caseinate
 
23
Calcium Sulfate
 
24
Sorbic Acid
 
25
Color (FD & C Yellow 5, Red 40)
 
26
Consider the Twinkie
(click here for excerpt)
 
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
 
INDEX
Acacia gum, 123
Acetaldehyde, 36
Acetic acid, 154, 210, 241
Acetone, 41, 94
Acetylene, 35–36, 210
Acid hydrolysis, 1, 59, 663
Adhesives, 67, 96, 97, 172, 227,
229, 235
Ag Processing Inc., 90, 92, 103
Ahmann, Steve, 158
Alkali Act, 148
Alkali chemical lye, 22
All in the Family (television
show), 5
Allied Custom Gypsum, 232
Alonso, Elias, 35
Alpha amylase, 61, 63
Alto Dairy Cooperative, 129
American Cookery(Simmons), 135
American Ingredients, 41,
181–185, 217, 221–223
American Sugar Refining Inc.,
51
Amines, 30, 36
Amino acids, 41, 59, 65, 106, 154, 227
Amish farms, 14
Ammonia, 30, 35, 36, 103
Ammonium carbonate, 37
Ammonium nitrate, 37
Amylacetate, 260
Anaheim, California, 206
Anderson, Greg, 88, 89
Anderson, Richard, 70
Anemia, 40
Aniline, 250, 251
Animal feed, 57, 59, 81, 88, 109111, 258
Annatto, 253–255
Anthocyanins, 254
Antibiotics, 59, 65
Apopka, Florida, 200
Archer Daniels Midland (ADM),
16, 55, 56, 80, 90, 94, 119
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge,
175
Argo, 76
Arm & Hammer Baking Soda,
143, 149
Arrowroot starch, 59
Arsenic, 157
Artificial butter, 210–213
Artificial colors (seeFood
coloring)
Artificial vanilla, 33, 197, 202,
205–210, 212, 213, 250
Ashbya gossypiifungus, 38
Aspartame, 40
Aspirin, 207, 241
Astraukas, Dave, 193
Atlas Powder Company,
188–189, 194
B vitamins, 31, 32, 36
Bacillus subtilis, 38
Backward integration, 36
Bakelite, 207
Baking powder, 9, 75, 76, 84,
133, 134, 137–139, 153,
154, 162, 164, 166, 167,
259
Baking process, 46–47, 84
Baking soda, 133, 134, 136,
137, 139, 141–152, 153, 163,
259
Banana, 201
BASF, 31, 37, 211
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 205,
207
Beauharnois, Canada, 22
Beaumont, Texas, 22
Bebee, Tim, 113
Beef fat, 91, 92, 100, 101n, 197
Beer, 64, 66, 134, 219–221, 235
Belcher, Maury, 92
Bell, Don, 117
Ben & Jerry’s ice cream, 107
Benzene, 206–208, 249–250
Beriberi, 29, 30, 37
Beta-carotene, 255
Better’n Eggs, 216
Betty Crocker Whipped Vanilla
Frosting, 197
Biotechnology, 30
Birth defects, 30, 40
Blair, Nebraska, 57, 58, 74,
217–218
Bleach
flour, 9, 20, 21–28
household, 21, 24
Blood sugar, 60, 66
Borden, 227
Borden, Gail, Jr., 227
Boutté, Troy, 181, 184, 222, 223
Boyle, Jimmy, 13–14, 16
Brand, Henning, 156–157
Bread, 8, 15, 66, 73, 95, 134, 135,
216, 234
Breyers Carb Smart Ice Cream
Bars, 228
Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme,
262
Brine, 25
British gums, 80
Brooklyn, New York, 52
Brown rice, 30, 37
Browning, 47–48, 64, 65–68, 106,
126
Bruno, Don, 41, 42
Butane, 211
Butter, 99, 100, 102, 126, 179, 189,
197, 200, 201, 210, 211, 248
artificial, 210–213
Butyric acid, 41, 212
Cadwell, Mike, 206–207
Calcium, 126, 133, 160, 165
Calcium carbonate, 232
Calcium caseinate, 85, 225–229
Calcium fluorapatite, 156
Calcium hydroxide (seeLime)
Calcium lactate, 219–220
Calcium lime, 161
Calcium oxide, 162, 167
Calcium sorbate, 241
Calcium sulfate, 9, 10, 84, 85,
138, 160–161, 220, 229,
231–238, 263
Candida yeasts, 38
Candies, 66, 76, 193
Candles, 98, 217n
Cane molasses, 41
Cane sugar industry, 45n
Canola oil, 38, 91–92, 99, 181,
182, 197
Caramel, 254
Carbohydrates, 38, 60
Carbolic acid, 207
Carbon, 37
Carbon atoms, 100
Carbon dioxide, 46, 53, 147, 151,
242
Carbon monoxide, 6, 34, 212,
240, 241
Carbonated beverages, 66
Cardboard, 73, 79
Cargill, 16, 57–59, 61, 67–68, 70,
72, 74, 217–218
Carmine, 254
Carpenter, David, 156
Casein, 225, 226
Caseinates, 10, 225–229
Catechol, 202, 207
Caustic soda (see Sodium
hydroxide)
Celanese, 243
Cellulose, 260
Cellulose gum, 9, 85, 115–123,
189, 259, 262–263
Center for Science in the Public
Interest (CSPI), 242
Cheese, 123, 125, 127, 129, 131,
171, 179, 225, 253
Cheetos, 218
Chemical industry, 7–8, 26,
32–33
Chemical Weapons Convention,
23
Chewing gum, 95, 128, 191
Chicago, Illinois, 139, 161,
164–165
Chickens, 38, 108–110
Chlor/alkali industry, 21–22,
172, 217, 261
Chlorine, 9, 21–28, 78, 172, 173,
210, 251, 258
Chlorine gas, 23–24, 26, 28
Chocolate, 95, 171
Cholesterol, 100
Church, Austin, 148–149
Church, James, 149
Citric acid, 59, 65, 154, 260
Citrus extract, 30
Citrus fruits, 40
Clabber Girl, 138, 139
Clinton, Iowa, 55
Clinton Corn Processing
Company, 56
Clove oil, 206
Coal tar, 37, 206, 250
Coca-Cola, 8, 69, 71, 154
Cochineal, 254
Coconut oil, 182, 197
Cod liver oil, 38
Coffee-mate, 228
Coke, 157, 250
Cold Stone Creamery, 180
Colonization, 50
Coloring (seeFood coloring)
Columbus, Christopher, 50
Con-Agra, 16
Coniferin, 205
Continental Bakeries, 7
Corn, 9, 56–58, 70, 74–76, 88–90,
109, 190, 223, 258
Corn: Part of a Healthy Diet (Corn
Refiners Association), 68
Corn chips, 81
Corn flour, 25, 73, 80–81, 85
Corn oil, 181, 242
Corn Refiners Association, 68
Corn sweetener industry, 45n
Corn sweeteners, 54, 55–63
Corn syrup, 45, 46, 58–65, 68, 80,
112, 121, 129, 191, 194, 209,
218, 219, 260
Cornflakes, 81
Cornmeal, 36, 81
Cornstarch, 41, 59, 60, 62, 63, 72,
73–81, 85, 138, 235
Corriher, Shirley O., 94
Corzine, Leon, 56
Cosettes, 53
Cosmetics, 67, 75, 96, 122, 128,
172, 182, 191–193, 197, 209,
217
Cotton, 115, 116, 118, 119, 123
Cottonseed oil, 91, 99, 181, 182
Council Bluffs, Iowa, 90
Crabtree & Evelyn, 192
Cream, 102, 121, 126, 127, 180, 189
Crisco, 90, 97, 99–101, 180–181
Crotanaldehyde, 240, 241
Crown Technology, 34
Crude oil, 32
Cumene, 207
Cunningham, Mary Lou, 191
Daicel Chemical Industries, 240
Dairy Fresh Non-Dairy Creamer,
99
Davis, Tim, 142, 145, 146
Davy, Sir Humphry, 22
Decatur, Illinois, 90
Deep tank technology, 33–34
Delmarva area, 13–14
Deltadodecalactone, 212
Denk, Joel, 130, 131
Denture adhesives, 122
Detergents, 62, 164
Devil Cremes, 6
Dewar, Charles, 7
Dextrin, 64, 75, 77, 79
Dextrose, 61, 62, 64, 65–67, 71,
178, 191, 218, 219, 260
Diabetes, 68–70
Diacetyl, 202, 210–212
Diesel fuel, 81, 97, 183
Diglycerides, 3, 85, 95, 99,
179–185, 188, 190, 193, 221
Diketene, 240, 241
DingDongs, 6
Directional drilling, 175
DNA, 154
Domino Sugar, 51, 52
Domino Superfine, 47
Donut Pyro, 166
Doonesburycomic strip, 4–5
Doritos, 127
Doritos Nacho Cheese, 66
Dove Beautifully Clean
Shampoo, 193
Dow Chemical, 116, 183, 195, 209
Dried eggs, 112–114
Dried milk, 126, 226, 227
Dry milling, 80–81
DSM, 31
Duncan Hines Creamy
Homestyle Cream Cheese
Frosting, 190
DuPont, 32, 103, 188
Durum, 15
Dwight, John, 148–149
Dye industry, 250
Eagle Brand Sweetened
Condensed Milk, 48
Easy Cheese, 127
Edamame, 89
Edy’s Grand Light Rich &
Creamy Vanilla ice cream,
180
Egg whites, 106, 107, 111, 228
Egg yolks, 94, 95, 106, 107, 111,
180, 189, 216, 223
Eggs, 8, 10, 104, 105–114, 126,
134, 226, 258
Eijkman, Christiaan, 37
Electricity, 22, 24, 25
Elizabeth, New Jersey, 105, 107,
112, 113
Elmer’s glue, 227
Enoch Valley Mine, Idaho,
155–156
Enriched flour, 8, 29–44
Entenmann’s cakes, 107
Enzymes, 60–65, 129, 244
Equistar, 195, 209
Eskimo Pie Ice Cream Bars, 197
Ethane, 194, 195, 240
Ethanol, 38, 65, 81
Ethyl acetate, 202
Ethyl alcohol, 65
Ethyl cellulose, 116
Ethyl maltol, 209
Ethyl vanillin, 202
Ethylene, 35–36, 195, 251, 258
Ethylene glycol, 209
Ethylene oxide, 194–196, 240
Evans, Oliver, 136
Everglades Agricultural Area, 49
Explosives, 48, 81, 96, 154,
188–189, 195
ExxonMobil, 151, 195
Famous Amos cookies, 107
Faraday, Michael, 24
Farmers, 13–14, 56
Fermentation, 30, 32, 39, 40,
58–59, 64, 66, 203, 219, 244
Ferric oxide, 34
Ferrous sulfate, 33–34, 42, 43
Fertilizers, 154, 156
Fiberglass, 163
Firmenich Inc., 204, 206
Fish, 38
Flavor Sciences Inc., 199, 200
Flavors, 199–213
Fleur de sel, 173
Florida Crystals Corporation, 51
Flour, 10, 45, 85, 136, 172, 259
    bleached, 9, 20, 21–28
    enriched, 8, 29–44
    wheat, 13–20
FMC Corporation, 139, 142–147,
150–152, 163–164, 217
Folate, 40–41
Folic acid, 30, 40–43
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA), 29, 40, 66, 172, 205,
241, 252–253, 255
Food coloring, 10, 25, 171, 183,
245, 247–256, 260
Forbesmagazine, 57
Formaldehyde, 206, 207
Fractionation units, 71
Franklin, Benjamin, 233
Freeport, Texas, 183
Freihofer’s 100% Whole Wheat
Bread, 261
Frozen eggs, 112, 113
Fructose, 69–71, 260
Fudgsicles, 127
Funk, Casimir, 30
Furfural, 209
Geismar, Louisiana, 160
Gelatinization, 47
Generally recognized as safe
(GRAS), 172, 241
Genetic engineering, 30, 258
Genetically modified (GM)
seeds, 56n, 260
Geneva Convention, 24
Gill, John, 108
Glass, 142, 143, 147, 163
Glop, 94
Glucose, 38, 60, 62, 64–67, 69
Glucose amylase, 62
Glucose isomerase, 62, 71
Glue, 79–80
Glutamate, 65
Glutamic acid, 41
Gluten, 15, 16, 27, 59, 85, 102
Glycerin, 182–183, 188, 189, 193,
209, 252
Glycerol, 183
Glyoxylic acid, 208
Gobley, Maurice, 94
Good Humor ice cream bars, 127
Grand Saline, Texas, 174
Grandview, Missouri, 181, 183,
217, 221
Great Depression, 6–7
Green River, Wyoming, 139, 142,
147, 163–164, 217
Grits, 81
Grove, Dennis, 176
Guaiacol, 207–209
Guaifenesin, 207
Guangji Pharmaceutical
Company, 39
Guar gum, 123
Gum arabic, 123
Gypsum (seeCalcium sulfate)
Harvard University, 136–137
Hay, 16
Heliotropine, 202, 209
Hellmann’s mayonnaise, 107
Helms, Allen, 118
Hemicellulose, 118, 260
Herbicides, 87, 160
Hercules Incorporated, 120, 189
Hexane, 91–93
High fructose corn syrup
(HFCS), 1, 2, 4, 45, 56, 58,
62, 65, 67–72, 263
Hines, Steve, 53
Hippocrates, 131
Ho Hos, 6
Hoffman, A. W., 242
Hoffman-La Roche, 31
Hollingshead, Dave, 236
Homegrown food, 2
Homogenization, 112
Honey, 64
Horsford, Eben Norton, 137–138
Hostess, 5, 7, 34, 66, 83, 106,
120–121, 127, 201
Household bleach, 21, 24
Hunt’s Snack Pack Vanilla
Pudding, 216
Hydrochloric acid (HC1), 25n,
27, 35, 38, 60, 63, 78, 79, 103,
148, 164, 210, 211, 229
Hydrogen, 25, 34, 193, 212, 250
Hydrogen atoms, 100
Hydrogen oxide, 260
Hydrogen peroxide, 37
Hydrogenation, 97–101
I Can’t Believe It’s Not Butter, 180
Ice cream, 8, 64, 66, 95, 107, 116,
122, 127, 180, 197, 210, 228,
248
IG Farben, 116
Indianapolis, Indiana, 7, 75, 200
Industrial espionage, 58
Infant formula, 104, 127
Innophos, 139, 160, 161, 164–168
Insulin, 70
International Flavors and
Fragrances (IFF), 201
International Food Information
Council (IFIC), 69
Iodine, 178
Iron, 9, 32, 34
Iron deficiency anemia, 29
Iron ore, 33
Iron salt, 34
Iron sulfate, 34
Isomerization, 71
Jams, 66, 122, 154
Jean Naté Hydrating Body
Lotion, 197
Jefferson, Thomas, 204
Jell-O Pudding Snacks, 216
Jellies, 66, 122, 154
Johnson, Eric D., 58, 61, 72
Karo Light corn syrup, 63
Ken’s Steak House Creamy
Italian Dressing, 190
Ketchup, 41
Ketene, 241
Kiley, Joyce, 199–201
Kingsford, Thomas, 75
Kingsford’s Starch, 75–76
Kirchoff, G. S. C., 59–60
KLK (Kuala Lumpur Kepong
Berhad), 192
Knorr Instant Hollandaise Sauce
Mix, 79
Kosher food, 96, 101n, 182, 183,
237
Kraft
American cheese, 127
Calumet Double-Acting
Baking Powder, 235
Cheez Whiz, 127
Cool Whip, 102, 190
Free French Style Fat-Free
Dressing, 65
Jet-Puffed Marshmallows, 78
Sure-Jell Premium Fruit Pectin
for Homemade Jams &
Jellies, 66
Kreme Filled Krimpets, 6
Krishock, Dave, 79
Kunz, Gray, 3, 179
Lactic acid, 33, 51, 65, 129,
218–222, 244, 251
Lactones, 212
Lactose, 126, 127, 129, 130
Lafayette, Indiana, 7
Lake Charles, Louisiana, 22
Lard, 97n, 99, 197
Lauric acid, 197
Laxatives, 122
Leavenings, 46, 47, 106, 132,
133–139
Leblanc, Nicolas, 148
Lecithin, 85, 88, 89, 91, 93–97,
103, 180, 190
Lemon juice, 136
Lespinasse restaurant, 3
Lignin, 118, 206
Lime, 51, 53, 63, 103, 133, 161, 162,
164, 172, 219, 229, 233, 258
Limestone, 133, 153, 161, 167,
172, 232
Linolenic soybeans, 101
Liquid nitrogen, 221
Liquid petroleum gas, 35
Liquid starch, 59, 63, 74
Liquid sugar, 47, 54
Lister, Sir Joseph, 207
Little Debbie, 5, 150
Golden Cremes, 6
Liver, 30, 38, 40
Lonza Ltd., 35
Louis XVI, King of France, 148
Low-fat foods, 78–79
Lye, 78, 80, 103, 120, 164, 172,
210, 217, 229
Lysine, 106, 109
Magnesium sulfate, 250
Maillard reactions, 65, 68, 106
Malic acid, 260
Maltodextrin, 64
Maltol, 202
Mannitol, 189
Margarine, 94, 180, 192
Marggraf, Andreas, 53
Marion, Arkansas, 118
Marmite, 40
Marshmallow Fluff, 64
McCormick and Company, 200,
201, 204
Au Jus Gravy Mix, 122
McDonald, Nancy, 200, 201
McElvaney, Kevin, 52, 54
Meth production, 159
Methane, 5, 240
Methanol, 38, 240–241
Methyl esters, 182–183, 207
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 211
Michael Foods, 105, 113
Milk, 38, 123, 126–132, 167, 179,
218–219, 223, 225–227, 229,
258
Millet seeds, 38
Mississippi Lime Company, 161,
219
M&M Consulting and
Laboratory, 200
Modified cornstarch, 75, 78–79
Moisture control, 10, 48, 49, 67,
77, 78, 81
Molasses, 51, 52, 54, 94
Monocalcium phosphate (MCP),
134, 137, 139, 153, 161,
165–167, 219
Monoglycerides, 3, 85, 95, 99,
179–185, 188, 190, 193, 221
Monosodium glutamate (MSG),
41, 65
Monsanto, 56n, 155, 157–160
Roundup, 160
Roundup Ready seeds, 87
Morder, Dan, 173
Morton, 169–171, 173–178
Mountain ash tree (Sorbus
aucuparia), 242–243
Mountain Fuel Supply, 142
Mrs. Freshley’s Creme Cakes, 45
Myths surrounding Twinkies, 4,
6, 47
Nantong Acetic Acid Chemical
Company, 240
Naphtha, 35, 251
Naphthalene, 251
Napoleon, 60, 72
Nashville, Tennessee, 160
National Starch, 74, 75
Natural gas, 78, 202–203, 206,
209, 240
Naval jelly, 154
Neutrogena
Norwegian Formula Hand
Cream, 193
Oil-Free Acne Wash, 197
New Castle, Delaware, 188, 191,
194
New Coke, 204
Newman Grove, Nebraska, 88
Niacin, 35–36, 43
Niagara Falls, New York, 21, 22
Nielsen, Matt, 204, 205
Nielsen-Massey Vanillas, 204
Night-blindness, 30
Nitric acid, 36, 37, 250, 251
Nitrobenzene, 250
Nitrogen, 20, 35–36, 172, 211,
220
Nitroglycerin, 182, 188
Niutang Chemical Inc., 40
Nutraceuticals, 127
Nutrament energy and fitness
drink, 228
Nutrinova (Hoechst AG), 240,
242, 243
Nutrition bars, 127
Nutrition Facts labels, 101
Obesity, 68–70
Occidental Petroleum
Corporation, 22
Ocean Spray Ruby Red
Grapefruit Juice, 248
Oil palms, 190, 192
Olay Moisturinse Shower Body
Lotion, 197
Oleic acid, 197
Olive oil, 180, 182, 197, 242
Olivio, 180
Olsen, Bill, 41, 42
Oreos, 261
Oscar Mayer Turkey Bologna, 76
Oswego, New York, 75
Oxidation, 26, 37
OxyChem, 22, 23
Oxygen, 35, 166, 172, 195, 212,
221, 251
Paint, 96, 97, 209, 226
Palladium, 240
Palm kernel oil, 92, 182, 183, 192
Palm oil, 91, 92, 99, 181–183,
192–194
Palm trees, 216
PAM cooking spray, 96
Paper, 73, 117–119, 164, 172, 206
Papetti’s Hygrade Egg products,
105, 107, 108, 110–113
Papyrus, 75
Paraffin, 42, 98
Partially hydrogenated vegetable
shortening, 94, 96–100, 102,
258
Pasteur, Louis, 138
Pasteurization, 112
Peanut butter, 95, 102, 180
Pearlash, 135, 136, 147
Pebble quicklime, 162
Pectin, 66, 122, 260
Pellagra, 29, 36
Penicillin, 59, 65
Peoria, Illinois, 80
Periodic table, 24
Perkin, Sir William H., 250
Pesticides, 78
Peterson, J. Scott, 34
Petroleum, 9, 33, 35, 40, 78, 172,
183, 190, 206, 207, 209, 211,
240, 249, 258
Pharmaceuticals, 66, 67, 78, 164,
191, 207, 209, 235
Phenol, 202, 207
Phosphates, 9, 133, 153–168, 172,
232
Phosphoric acid, 8–9, 33, 78, 137,
153–155, 158, 160, 164–166,
258
Phosphorus, 133, 153–159, 220
Phosphorus oxychloride, 78
Physiology of Taste, The(BrillatSavarin), 262
Pickle liquor, 33
Pickling process, 33
Pine Bluff, Arkansas, 119
Pine needle extract, 30
Pine trees, 117
Pizza, 15, 16, 47, 73
Planters Cotton Oil Mill, 119
Plaque, 100
Plaster, 9, 160, 231, 233–234, 236,
237
Plastic, 65, 96, 128, 172, 194, 195,
207, 217n, 226
Platinum, 240
Pockle (phosphorus, oxygen,
chloride [P-O-C]), 78
Point of origin, 2
Pollution, 31, 148, 157–158
Polyethylene, 35
Polysorbate 20, 196–197
Polysorbate 60, 1, 3, 4, 9, 65, 85,
95, 99, 121, 180, 185,
187–197, 216, 240, 260, 262
Polysorbate 80, 196–197
Polyurethane foam, 48
Potassium bicarbonate, 135
Potassium carbonate, 147
Potassium hydroxide, 22, 241
Potassium iodide, 177
Potassium sorbate, 241
Potatoes, 74
Pound cakes, 27
PPG Industries, 22, 23
Pregelatinized starch, 77
Preservatives, 48, 170, 171,
239–245
Procter & Gamble, 99, 182
Propylene gas, 183, 207, 210
Propylene glycol, 209–210, 212,
252
Propylene oxide, 78, 210
Protein, 10, 15, 16, 26, 27, 47, 103,
106, 126, 127, 129
Pteroic acid, 41
Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, 41
Purac, 218, 219
PVC (polyvinylchloride), 26
Questar, 142
Quicklime, 162
Quincy, Massachusetts, 192–193,
217
Raw food, 2
Raw sugar, 51, 52
Red No. 40, 3, 9, 85, 247–249,
251–253, 255, 256
Reduced iron, 34–35
Refined sugar, 52–54
Refractometer, 72
Rennet, 129, 229
Rhodia, 32, 201, 205
Riboflavin, 38–39, 42, 43
Rice, 39, 74
Riha, Bill, 242
Rillieux, Norbert, 51
Ring dryer, 75
Ronzoni pasta, 107
Rose hips, 3
Rumford Baking Powder, 138,
139
Rust, 34
Sabatier, Paul, 99
Sackett, Augustine, 234
St. Joseph, Missouri, 90
St. Louis, Missouri, 103
Ste. Genevieve, Missouri, 161
Sal soda, 147, 163
Salad dressings, 8, 64–65, 76, 78,
122, 127, 190
Salaratus, 148–149
Salt, 22, 24, 25, 51, 85, 112, 121,
168, 169–178, 210, 213, 219,
232, 258, 260, 261
Saltpeter, 48
Saturated fats, 100, 101, 181
Schaeffer’s Salt, 251
Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, 22, 182,
218–219, 251
Scurvy, 30
Sea salt, 148, 173
Sensient Colors Inc., 247–248,
255
Sensient Technologies, 200
Serving sizes, 69
Sesame seeds, 167
Shanghai Dyestuffs Research
Institute Company, Ltd.,
250, 251
Sheetrock, 232, 234
Shelf life, 7, 8, 10, 46, 48, 81, 95,
106–107, 120–121, 126, 134,
139, 180, 216, 219, 239
Shellac, 128
Shoemaker, Kevin, 218
Shortening, 90–93, 97n, 97–99,
102, 121, 193
Silica, 157, 163, 233
Silver Springs, New York, 169,
171, 173–176
Simmons, Amelia, 135
Sinopec, 249, 251
Slim-Fast Optima, 121, 228
Smith, Terry, 23, 24
Smuckers Reduced Fat Natural
Style Peanut Butter, 64
Soap, 142, 143, 147, 164, 182, 193,
197, 222
Soda ash, 142–143, 146–158,
162–165, 216–217, 223
Soda Springs, Idaho, 153,
155–157
Sodium, 24, 25, 41, 173, 216–217,
261
Sodium acid phosphate, 137
Sodium acid pyrophosphate
(SAPP), 134, 139, 143, 153,
164, 165, 216
Sodium aluminum sulfate, 134
Sodium bicarbonate (seeBaking
soda)
Sodium carbonate, 51, 142, 147,
150–153, 161–163, 166, 167,
216, 222
Sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose
(CMC), 120, 122
Sodium caseinate, 25, 85, 223,
225–229
Sodium chloride (NaC1), 24
Sodium ferrocyanide, 178
Sodium hydroxide, 22, 24, 25, 63,
80, 97, 172, 217, 229, 247
Sodium methoxide, 217
Sodium monochloroacetate, 120
Sodium nitrite, 247
Sodium sesquicarbonate, 142, 150
Sodium silicoaluminate, 177
Sodium stearate, 222
Sodium stearoyl lactylate, 8, 25,
65, 85, 99, 142, 164, 180, 190,
215–223
Soft drinks, 59, 68, 69, 71–72
Solae Company, 103
Solution mining, 169, 175–176
Solvay process, 149
Sorbic acid (trans trans 2,4hexadienoic acid), 10, 85,
107, 191, 239–245, 260
Sorbin, 243
Sorbit, 243
Sorbitan monostearate (SMS),
194, 196
Sorbitol, 65, 99, 191, 243
Sourdough, 135
South Beach Diet, 60
Southard, Oklahoma, 232,
236–237
Soy flour, 91, 93
Soy grits, 93
Soy protein isolate, 25, 85, 88, 89,
91, 93, 103–104
Soybean oil, 25, 38, 94, 98–99,
101, 180, 181, 182, 191, 197,
242
Soybeans, 8, 9, 39, 57, 85, 87–104,
109, 128, 167, 216, 258, 263
Spanish barilla, 147–148
Sparks, Maryland, 200
Spent bee grain, 38
SPI Polyols, 191
Spinach, 40
Sponge cake, 27, 47, 77, 106, 134,
171
Sports drinks, 8, 127
Starbucks
Frappuccino, 122
Low Fat Latte ice cream, 122
Starch, 40–41, 61, 74–81
Stearic acid, 22, 99, 182, 191–192,
217, 222
Steel pickling, 33
Steep water, 58
Straw, 16
Sucrose, 46, 49, 64, 68, 69, 71, 260
Sugar, 8, 10, 11, 27, 44, 45–54, 60,
64, 66, 68, 70, 121, 189, 260
Sugar beets, 49, 53, 60
Sugar Trust, 52
Sugarcane, 49–51, 53, 60
Sulfanilic acid, 250
Sulfate, 32
Sulfur, 32–33
Sulfur dioxide, 33, 58, 164
Sulfuric acid, 33–34, 60, 78, 137,
148, 160, 165, 172, 206, 209,
220, 258
Sunflower oil, 91, 101, 181
Surfactant, 96
Suzy Q’s, 6
Swiss Miss Hot Cocoa Mix, 122
Sydney, Iowa, 56
Table sugar (seeSucrose)
Tallow, 92, 192, 197
Tapioca starch, 41, 74
Tartaric acid, 136, 251
Tate & Lyle, 74
Terre Haute, Indiana, 138
Texas City, Texas, 207
Thiamine, 37, 43
Thiamine hydrochloride, 38
Thiamine mononitrate, 37–38, 42
Thinned starches, 79
Thomas, Glenda, 150, 152
Thompson, Benjamin, 137
Tianjin Zhongjin Pharmaceutical
Company, 37
Titanium dioxide, 254
Tobacco, 67
Tofu, 39, 93, 103, 234
Tollhouse Mint Brownie Bars,
127
Toothpaste, 116, 122, 128, 191
Tortillas, 80, 81
Trans fats, 6n, 91, 101, 102, 258
Trees, 115–118, 123, 242–243
Tribasic phosphate, 103
Triglycerides, 70, 179–180, 182,
192
Triscuits, 179
Trona, 133, 142–147, 149–150,
163–164
Trudeau, G. B., 5
Tryptophan, 36
Tums, 161
Turmeric, 254
Twin Rivers Technologies,
192–193, 217
“Twinkie defense,” 5
UK Patent Office, 26
Union Pacific Railroad, 163
Union Sugar Company, 60–61
Uniqema, 188, 191, 194
United States Gypsum (USG),
232, 236
United Sugar, 53
University of Iowa, 101
Unsaturated fats, 100
Uranium, 160
Urine, 156–157
Vanadium, 158
Vanadium oxide, 211
Vanilla, 200–205, 208
artificial, 33, 197, 202, 205–21212, 213, 250
Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3methoxybenzaldehyde),
202, 205–210, 250
Vaseline Intensive Care Dry SkiLotion, 217n
Vegetable oil, 25, 93, 94, 97, 181
Veggie Slices Cheese Alternative American Flavor Organic,228
Velveeta cheese sauces, 127
Vinegar, 136
Vitamin B1, 35–36
Vitamin B2, 38–39, 42, 43
Vitamin B3, 35–36, 43
Vitamin B9, 30, 40–41, 40–43
Vitamin C, 3, 65
Vitamins, 20, 28, 29–44, 64, 258
Vulcan Spice Mills, 149
Wakefield, Nebraska, 113
Walsh, Kelly, 248
Wanaque Reservoir, New Jersey,
83
Washing soda, 147, 163, 164
Water, 45, 47, 81, 83–85, 93, 121,
127, 210
Watt, James, 136
Waukegan, Illinois, 204
Waupun, Wisconsin, 128
Waxy maize or corn, 74
Wayne, New Jersey, 52, 83
Western Phosphate Field, 156
Wheat, 8, 13–20, 74, 258
Wheat starch, 75
Whey, 10, 51, 85, 125–132,
225–227, 229
Whey protein concentrate, 126,
127
White, Dan, 5
Wills, Lucy, 40
Wise
Cheez Doodles, 76
Sour Cream and Onion PotatoChips, 127
Wish-Bone Fat Free Chunky
Blue Cheese salad dressing,122
Wonder Bread, 7, 216, 235
World War I, 23, 60
World War II, 8, 60
Xanthan gum, 65, 123
Yeast, 38, 64, 66, 133–135, 211
Yellow #2 dent field corn, 74
Yellow No. 5, 85, 247, 249,
251–253, 255, 256
Yellow prussiate of soda, 178
Yogurt, 126, 129, 132